Wednesday, February 25, 2015

Fognature Pluviali

Per semplificare il post originale ho raccolto qui tutto il materiale del Corso di Costruzioni Idrauliche sulle fognature pluviali.

1 - Brevissimamente: il ciclo idrologico e la misura delle grandezze idrologiche
2 - Una nuova visione dell'idrologia urbana e delle sue applicazioni.
3 - Elementi di analisi statistica esplorativaAudio (27 Mb).  Una guida a fumetti sull'argomento.
4 - Un ripasso di teoria della Probabilità.

5 - Le precipitazioni (genesi - Audio 34.6 Mb - e trattazione statistica degli estremi. Audio - 29.6 Mb, Test di Pearson, 17.4 Mb, GEV - 7.4 Mb )
6 - Introduction to R (the old slides; the new scripts). Un paio di dispense utili: I e II)
7 - Calcolo delle linee segnalatrici di possibilità pluviometrica con R e lo script R usato a lezione (che riprende con differenze minime le operazioni rappresentate nelle slides). Qui anche una relazione tipo (fatta originariamente in LaTeX). Per chi vuole esagerare anche uno stile LaTeX che mi piace particolarmente.
8 - Le fognature pluviali (per di più dovute al lavoro di  Roberto Magini e che io ho solo ritagliato sulle mie esigenze). Audio 2014 (19.2 Mb). Audio 2015 (17.2 Mb)
9 - La previsione delle piene con l'idrogramma istantaneo unitario (IUH/GIUH). Solo i primi sei gruppi di slides sono pertinenti a questo corso.
10 - Dimensionare e verificare una fognatura pluvialeAudio (30.4 Mb)
11 - Il programma Trento_p di cui la documentazione è presentata in un separato post.
12 - Cenni sulle pompe e sugli impianti di sollevamentoAudio sulle pompe (17.6 Mb). Audio sul dimensionamento dei volumi degli impianti di sollevamento (7.9 Mb).

Il file delle piogge di S.Martino lo trovate qui.
Il file delle precipitazioni di Paperopoli è qui.
Lo script di R per il calcolo delle statistiche delle precipitazioni estreme di durata 1h è qui.

Queste le domande per gli studenti di Acquedotti e fognature 2016.

Qui si torna alla pagina principale

Acquedotti

Per semplicità di consultazione ho separato il materiale del Corso di Costruzioni idrauliche nelle due parti principali. Questa è la parte di acquedotti.

1 - Le reti di acquedotto (I primi 6 capitoli del libro di Maurizio Leopardi da leggere per farsi un'idea di che cosa si sta parlando:
                                                    1- Utilizzo Idropotabile
                                                    2- Il trasporto in pressione
                                                    3- Dimensionamento idraulico delle condotte
                                                    4- Acquedotto con sollevamento meccanico
                                                    5- Serbatoi
                                                    6- Reti di distribuzione)

2 - Opere di Captazione  Audio (26 Mb) e PozziAudio (22.2 Mb).
3 - Le reti di distribuzioneAudio (30 Mb)
4 - Le equazioni delle reti . Audio: 1, 2 - Equazioni delle reti. I (13Mb) e II (20 Mb). 3 -Verifica di una rete idraulica (18 Mb).
5 - Il software EPANET e alcuni strumenti collegati^3
6 - Le reti di adduzioneAudio (20.2 Mb)
7 - Serbatoi di compenso e Torrini piezometriciAudio serbatoi (20.7 Mb)
8 - Opere di presa e piccole traverse fluvialiAudio dimensionamento griglia (23.7 Mb). Audio: dimensionamento della trappola (14.3 Mb). Dissabbiatore e altri organi (1.6 Mb)
9 - Gli impianti domestici.
10 - Manufatti e opere di regolazione (slides di Roberto Magini). Audio (8.8 Mb)
11 - Tubazioni (Slides di Roberto Magini). Audio (18.9 Mb)

Per tornare al tornare al post originale.

Tuesday, February 24, 2015

Un'Introduzione all'idrologia

Qui di seguito potete trovare introduzione al corso (Youtube).   L'introduzione all'idrologia come scienza fisica, è suddiviso in varie parti:

1 -  All'inizio fu l'acqua
2 -  I flussi idrologici e la risorsa idrica. Audio 2015: (6.2 MB)
3 -  I fenomeni estremi. Audio 2015: (7 Mb)
4 -  Il mezzo è il messaggio.  Audio 2015: (8.8 Mb)
5 -  L'informazione idrologica
6 -  Bilanci di Massa ed EnergiaAudio 2014:  (11.8 Mb)
7 -  Il bilancio globale di EnergiaAudio 2014 (6.3 Mb)
8 -  Variabilità spaziale del ciclo idrologicoAudio 2014 (8.3 Mb)
9 -  Scale temporali nel ciclo idrologicoAudio 2014:  (6.1 Mb)
10 -Budiko Analysis (YouTube Video)




(Una splendida introduzione alternativa, anche se non tecnologicamente up-to-date,  è la lettura dell'articolo "Evolution of modern  hydrology" di P. Eagleson,  WRR 1994.

Una visione complementare è anche offerta da "Global Hydrological Cycles and World Water Resources", di T. Oki e S,. Kanae).

Per tornare al post principale qui.

Bibliografia


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Alcamo, J., Döll, P., Henrichs, T., Kaspar, F., Lehner, B., Roesch, T., and  Siebert, S. (2003). Global estimates of water withdrawals and availability under current and future “business-as-usual” conditions. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 48(3), 339–348. doi:10.1623/hysj.48.3.339.45278

Amante C. & Eakins B.W., ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis. National Geophysical Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, United States Department of Commerce, Boulder, CO, August 2008. Available www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/etopo1sources.html

Ball, P. - H2O, a biography of water, Phoenix ed., 1999

Batjes N.H., ISRIC-WISE Harmonized Global Soil Profile Dataset (Ver. 3.1), Wageningen: ISRIC - World Soil Information, 2008 (ISRIC Report 2008/02) 

Baumgartner A. & Reichel E., The World Water Balance. Elsevier, New York, 179 p., 1975

Bertoldi, G., R. Rigon & T. M. Over, Impact of watershed geomorphic characteristics on the energy and water budgets, Jour. of Hydromet., vol. 7, n. 3, p. 389–403, 2006. 

Budyko M.I., Evaporation under natural conditions, Gidrometeorizdat, Leningrad (1948) English translation by IPST, Jerusalem .

Budyko M.I., Climate and life, transl. and edit. by Miller, D. H., Academic Press, London, 1974

Dingman S., Physical Hydrology, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1994.

Donohue RJ, Roderick M, McVicar TR. 2007. On the importance of including vegetation dynamics in Budyko’s hydrological model. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 11: 983–995.

Gentine, P., Troy, T. J., Lintner, B. J., & Findell, K. L. (2012). Scaling in Surface Hydrology: Progress and Challenges. Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education, 147, 28–40.

Global Change in the Geosphere-Biosphere, NRC, 1986, 

Kwon, E. Y., G. Kim, F. Primeau, W. S. Moore, H.-M. Cho, T. DeVries, J. L. Sarmiento, M. A. Charette, and Y.-K. Cho (2014), Global estimate of submarine groundwater discharge based on an observationally constrained radium isotope model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 8438–8444, doi:10.1002/ 2014GL061574.

Hijmans R.J., Condori B., Carillo R., Kropff M.J., A quantitative and constraint-specific method to assess the potential impact of new agricultural technology: the case of frost resistant potato for the Altiplano (Peru and Bolivia). Agricultural Systems, vol. 76, p. 895–911, 2005.

Holland, H. D. (2006). The oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 361(1470), 903–915. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1838

"i mille fiumi" di Arrigo Boetti e Anna-marie Sauzeau-Boetti

Lehner B. & Doll P., Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. Journal of Hydrology Volume, vol. 296, p. 1-22, 2004

Lenton, T. (1998). Gaia and natural selection. Nature, 394, 439-447.

Lin, B., Stackhouse P.V. Jr., Minnis P., Wielicki B.A., Hu Y., Sun W., Fan T.-F. &, Hinkelman L.M., Assessment of global annual atmospheric energy balance from satellite observations, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 113, D16114, doi:10.1029/2008JD009869, 2008

 Mitchell, J.M., an overview of climate variability and its causal mechanisms, Quaternary Res., 6, 481-493

Oki, T. (2006). Global Hydrological Cycles and World Water Resources. Science, 313(5790), 1068–1072. doi:10.1126/science.1128845

Oldekop E., About evapotranspiration in riverine basins (in Russian). Jurjev (Tartu), 1911

Peixoto, J.P., and A. H., Oort, The Physics of Climate, AIP, 1992

Peixoto J.P. & Kettani M.A., The control of the water cycle, Sci. American, vol. 228, p. 46-61, 1973

Rabus B., Eineder M., Roth A. & Bamler R., The shuttle radar topography mission - a new class of digital elevation models acquired by spaceborne radar, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing, vol. 57, p. 241-262, 2003

Rigon R., Bertoldi G. & T. M. Over, GEOtop: A distributed hydrological model with coupled water and energy budgets, Jour. of Hydromet., vol. 7, n. 3, p. 371- 388, 2006.

Serafin, F., Sull’analisi climatica del tirolo mediante modellazione geostatistica e ricerca dei parametri per la descrizione di funzioni climatiche stagionali, tesi di laurea triennale, realtori R. Rigon e Matteo Dall’Amico, 2011

Shiklomanov I.A. & Sokolov A.A., Methodological basis of world water balance investigation and computation. In: New Approaches in Water Balance Computations. IAHS Publ. no. 148, p. 77-90, 1983

Shiklomanov, I. A. (2000). World water resources: a new appraisal and assessment for the 21st century; 1998, 1–40.

Simoni S., F. Zanotti, G. Bertoldi & R. Rigon, Modelling the probability of occurrence of shallow landslides and channelized debris flows using GEOtop-FS, Hydrol. Proc., vol. 22, n. 4, p. 532-545, 2007.

Voisin, N., Wood, A. W., & Lettenmaier, D. P. (2008). Evaluation of Precipitation Products for Global Hydrological Prediction. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 9(3), 388–407. doi:10.1175/2007JHM938.1

Vörösmarty, C. J. (2000). Global Water Resources: Vulnerability from Climate Change and Population Growth. Science, 289(5477), 284–288. doi:10.1126/science.289.5477.284

Wallace J.M. & Hobbs P.V., Atmospheric Science An Introductory Survey. Academic Press. New York. 467pp., 1997

Zhang L., Dawes W.R. & Walker G.R., Response of mean annual evapotranspiration to vegetation changes at catchment scale, Water Resour. Res., vol. 37, p. 701–708, 2001. 

Friday, February 20, 2015

A new topic for a Ph.D. in Hydrology

GEOtop 2.0 (http://abouthydrology.blogspot.it/search/label/GEOtop%202.0) is a successful process-based model of the hydrological cycle. It integrates both the water and energy budget and it is supplied by the MeteoIO library for meteo data interpolations. GEOtop has a development history of more than fifteen years (http://abouthydrology.blogspot.it/2015/02/geotop-essentials.html). It can be used, and has been used, for soil moisture forecasting, eco-hydrology simulations, snow pack evolution forecasting, permafrost modelling, landslide triggering assessment. Its code is a mature C++ implementation of solid algorithms and physics. However it is conceived as a monolithic structure, in which improvements can be made with difficulty and after overcoming a huge learning curve.  At the same time, the user experience is far by being optimal, and must be structurally improved.

Therefore, during the same evolution of the model, it was envisioned to migrate it towards a more flexible informatics where improvements, maintenance and documentation could be pursued more easily. This refactoring of the code, is not a trivial operation, and would require to understand the present structure of GEOtop, and advanced concepts of software engineering. The first step would be obtaining a temporary implementation according to the guideline sketched in: http://abouthydrology.blogspot.it/2014/09/improve-geotop-informatics.html.

Subsequently a tied integration of the main modules/classes should be pursued inside the Object Modeling System Infrastructure (http://abouthydrology.blogspot.it/2013/10/the-summer-school-on-object-modelling.html), as suggested in http://abouthydrology.blogspot.it/2011/03/going-beyond-present-stato-of-art-in.html.  This would immediately open the road to use the intrinsic parallelism of OMS components, with a better treatment of river basins genmetry and topology, and  the integration of the various tools developed within the JGrass-NewAGE system with GEOtop own capabilities: but it will be a byproduct of the work, not the main objective of this Ph.D.

The main work in fact will be in implementing classes for the use of unstructured meshes, for the implementation of algorithms for solving partial differential equations in a matrix free formalism, and for a parallelisation of internal algorithms of GEOtop, by using standard matrix packages or enhancing them, either in Java or C++. The focus will be in the efficiency of the implementations inside standard-main stream techniques,  in supporting literate programming, and discovering appropriate design patterns in programming this science, more than on hydrology itself. 

Integration of some of the OpenDA (http://www.openda.org/joomla/index.php) classes in OMS and their prototypical use could also part of the Ph.D. work. 

Obviously, the candidate must have programming skills in Java and C++, or the willing to pursue them having outstanding knowledge of hydrological physical processes. All the code developed is intended to be free software, and must be produced with appropriate documentation, being the reflection about research reproducibility and replicability and the productions of tools for it being effective, part itself of the main work.

Who is interested can write to me. 
The call for the doctoral positions can be found here: http://www.unitn.it/ateneo/663/concorso-di-ammissione (in Italian) e  http://www.unitn.it/en/ateneo/1954/announcement-of-selection
(in English).
Who would like to finance such a research or know programs that can support it are also welcomed. 

Wednesday, February 11, 2015

HydroloGIS is ten years old

I cannot avoid it. I am compelled to bring to your attention to the ten birthday celebration of Hydrologis, run by former students Andrea Antonello and Silvia Franceschi.


Click on the Rain Forest cake above for getting the chronicles of their last ten years directly from Andrea's JGrasstechtips blog.


Tuesday, February 10, 2015

GEOtop essentials

Being one of my more fruitful research products, GEOtop has so many posts that it can be really difficult to understand what it is in brief. GEOtop is a unique blend of a process-based hydrological model and a Land Surface Model. It in fact integrates both the water and energy budget: a characteristics that differentiate it from many other models. Recently there were many efforts in the same direction. However, these efforts combine different models together, while in GEOtop the processes description is intimately tied.

To start with GEOtop probably the best way is to read the two most general papers first.

Rigon, R., Bertoldi, G., & Over, T. M. (2006). GEOtop: A Distributed Hydrological Model with Coupled Water and Energy Budgets. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 7, 371–388.

Endrizzi S., Gruber S., Dall’Amico M., Rigon R., GEOtop 2.0.: Simulating the combined energy and water balance at and below the land surface accounting for soil freezing, snow cover and terrain effects, Geosci. Model Dev., 2014

A set of around 30 hours video lectures is available from here.

Subsequently a good reading could be the history of GEOtop, meaning understanding the motivation that guided us in building it:
Second part: Up to version 0.5
First Part: The addition of Land atmosphere interactions, and beyond.
The not-so-out-of-date manual, can be found here.

The main presentations (mostly invited) about GEOtop can be found here.  All the journal papers published in Journals, here.

We were used to compile and provide executables of GEOtop code for any platform (see old Executables for Mac OS X YosemiteExecutables for Windows 7Executables for Linux).

However, very recently, we "dockerised" the code, which is now available at the docker hub (this marks some difference with what explained in the video lectures).
There are two mailing for GEOtop:
Both of them contain relevant information and are the place where to ask for help (depending on which is your case) keeping in mind that GEOtop is an open source project with a very low financial support, so any answer is a courtesy not a duty.

The official repository of the code is on GIThub.
The overall set of information, including new directions, is here.
A set of matlab script for importing and exporting data is here.

Wednesday, February 4, 2015

Just twenty per cent

A recent paper on GRL, based on isotope studies claims that the contribution of fresh water to the oceans, could be just 20% (Wow!), the rest coming from what is termed the 'subterranean estuary,' which some researchers think supply the lion's share of terrestrial nutrients to the oceans.

The paper, by Kwon et al., is the result of many years of work, and is open access clicking on the link below. 

Reference

Kwon, E. Y., G. Kim, F. Primeau, W. S. Moore, H.-M. Cho, T. DeVries, J. L. Sarmiento, M. A. Charette, and Y.-K. Cho (2014), Global estimate ofsubmarine groundwater dischargebased on an observationally constrainedradium isotope model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 8438–8444, doi:10.1002/ 2014GL061574.

Sunday, February 1, 2015

Noises of Rain

When it arrives, rain makes noises besides raising scents. It is certainly the case of storms. It does not seems very much important in science, except for underwater noises. But it is important for us. Personally the arriving of a storm (maybe because I was not expose to very extreme, dangerous,  and violent events) gives me a sense of tranquillity or renovation. 

Poets and novelists care, though. One of the thing I learn in my family is this short poetry probably composed at age five by Rabindranath Tagore:

“The rain patters 
   the leaf quivers”

My uncle Marino turning ninety soon, pronounce in Bengoli “bristi pore-pata nore” with a pause between the two lines. 

Another piece of literature to which I am really fond of is the incipit of “Libera nos A Malo”, the novel by Luigi Meneghello.  Libera nos a Malo was translated in English in “Deliver Us”. However, the title reminds, at the same time, Catholic Liturgy, and Malo, the place where Meneghello was born, incidentally a little town confining with my own. He depicts it so intimately in the years between the 30ies and the 50ies, with this language which is my own native, but with many respects so universal. I use it to begin my hydrology course. Below in the translation of Joseph Tomasi, a friend of mine and former student (he translated also the Tagore's line). 

“It begins with a storm …

They were rolls, waves that finished in a puff: known noises, village things. Everything that we have here is animated, lively, maybe because the distances are short and fixed as in a theatre.  The downpours were onto the courtyards here around, the thunder up here above the roofs; I could recognize by ear, a little further up, the place of the usual God that made storms when we were children, He too a village character.  Here all is as if intensified, a matter of scale probably, of inner relationships. The shape of the noises and of these thoughts (which were, after all, the same thing) seemed to me for a moment truer than true, but it cannot be recreated with words. “

Third, it comes, a classic (at least for Italians) from Gabriele D’Annunzio. I can dislike his ideas and what he represented. However, Rain in the pinewood is really beautiful and enjoyable. 
(Translation from here, original from here, composed probably around 1902)

Be silent. At the edge
of the woods I do not hear
the human words you say;
I hear new words
spoken by droplets and leaves
far away.
Listen. It rains
from the scattered clouds.
It rains on the briny, burned
tamarisk,
it rains on the pine trees
scaly and rough,
it rains on the divine
myrtle,
on the bright ginestra flowers
gathered together,
on the junipers full of
fragrant berries,
it rains on our sylvan
faces,
it rains on our
bare hands
on our light
clothes,
on the fresh thoughts
that our soul, renewed,
liberates,
on the beautiful fable
that beguiled you
yesterday, that beguiles me today,
oh Hermione.

Can you hear? The rain falls
on the solitary
vegetation
with a crackling noise that lasts
and varies in the air
according to the thicker,
less thick foliage.
Listen. With their singing, the cicadas
are answering this weeping,
this southern wind weeping
that does not frighten them,
and nor does the grey sky.
And the pine tree
has a sound, the myrtle
another one, the juniper
yet another, different
instruments
under countless fingers.
And we are immersed
in the sylvan spirit,
living the same
sylvan life;
and your inebriated face
is soft from the rain,
like a leaf,
and your hair is
is fragrant like the light
ginestra flowers,
oh terrestrial creature
called Hermione.

Listen, listen. The song
of the flying cicadas
becomes fainter
and fainter
as the weeping
grows stronger;
but a rougher song
rises from afar,
and flows in
from the humid remote shadow.
Softer and softer
gets weaker, fades away.
One lonely note
still trembles, fades away.
No one can hear the voice of the sea.
Now you can hear the silver rain
pouring in
on the foliage,
rain that purifies,
its roar that varies
according to the thicker,
less thick foliage.
Listen.
The child of the air
is silent; but the child
of the miry swamp, the frog,
far away,
sings in the deepest of shadows
who knows where, who knows where!
And it rains on your lashes,
Hermione.


It rains on your black lashes
as if you were weeping,
weeping from joy; not white
but almost green,
you seem to come out of the bark.
And life is in us fresh
and fragrant,
the heart in our chests is like a peach
untouched
under the eyelids our eyes
are like springs in the grass
and the teeth in our mouths
green almonds.
And we go from thicket to thicket,
at a time together, at a time apart
(the vegetation, thick and vigorous,
entwines our ankles
entangles our knees)
who knows where, who knows where!
And it rains on our sylvan
faces,
it rains on our
bare hands
on our light
clothes,
on the fresh thoughts
that our soul, renewed,
liberates,
on the beautiful fable
that beguiled me
yesterday, that beguiles you today,

oh Hermione.

P.S. - The picture is by Michele Vettorazzi. He describes his photo as follows: "I was close to the Refuge Rome, where I was for the climbing the next day  Monte Nevoso (3358 m),  Monte Magro (3273 m) and Sasso Lungo (3227 m). In the late afternoon I saw it coming a storm announced by blacks heavy clouds  that were gathering near the Collalto (3435 m). I immediately looked for something interesting to put in the foreground to give strength to the composition,  and I found these large boulders. I ran a dozen shots; its last step the position of the clouds, lightning and boulders was perfect. Shortly after the storm was over. Nikon D800, 16-35mm f4 @ 16mm; ISO 80; f / 20 - 20 sec. Incidentally Michele was my second graduate student, many years ago but, obviously, I do not have any role of his ability as photographer.